“Climbing a Great Hill”: The Process of Integral Diversity Maturity Illustrated in Nelson Mandela’s Autobiography Long Walk to Freedom
The authors have articulated a post-conventional, integral theory of diversity dynamics, Integral Diversity Maturity (IDM). Here, they have employed this developmental framework to explore Nelson Mandela’s life experiences in the context of his orientation toward diversity. The analysis is designed to shed light on how extraordinary situations of racial tension can become fertile ground for the development of transformative and integral views of diversity.
||Diversity, Integral Theory, Mandela
International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp.171-184.
Article: Print (Spiral Bound).
Article: Electronic (PDF File; 991.374KB).
Professor, Doctor of Education Program, Union Institute & University, Tacoma, USA
Michael A. Raffanti has a varied professional background in education and social justice. A California native, he completed his Bachelor of Arts in History and Philosophy at the University of Portland, and his Juris Doctor at Boston College Law School. He also holds a Master in Teaching degree from The Evergreen State College where he focused on multicultural education. He earned his Doctor of Education degree from Fielding Graduate University. Michael became interested in an educational career while practicing poverty law in San Francisco. His involvement in developing a law academy at an urban high school precipitated Michael’s movement from law to education. While earning his teaching license, he directed the education department of an AIDS service organization and developed HIV prevention programs for adolescents, gay and bisexual men, and communities of color. Michael has taught third grade in urban settings and served in a variety of educational leadership roles. He also taught at-risk high school students in a weekend community college program. A scholar-practitioner, Michael’s research interests span many disciplines, with particular emphases on diversity, systems change, and multicultural education. Michael is a full-time faculty member in the Doctor of Education program at Union Institute & University where he teaches qualitative methods and supervises dissertations on leadership.
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, PhD in Interdisciplinary Studies Program, Union Institute & University, Cincinnati, USA
TONI A. GREGORY specializes in the study of organizational learning and the impact of culture and complexity on organizational transformation. She earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from the University of Michigan. She earned her Master and Doctor of Education degrees in Corporate Education and Organizational Psychology/Organizational & Transformative Learning from the University of Cincinnati. She has been a faculty member, senior administrator and program director in higher education. She has also been a corporate manager and the director of research for the American Institute for Managing Diversity where she established and managed a global research division and supervised a variety of research initiatives. She has a broad based background in research methods and design. She has an extensive background in leadership, management and organization theory. She is a consultant to organizations and has authored and co-authored books and articles on diversity and managing complexity. She is currently Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the Ph.D. Progam in Interdisciplinary Studies at Union Institute and University.
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