Smiling can reflect both ones inner emotional states as well as ones culturally appropriate and competent behavior within social situations. Previous studies have indicated cultural differences in smiling behavior between Chinese and American college students. However, with the spread of globalization and the influence of Asian pacific cultures, many of these cultural differences have disappeared and reveal fewer gaps between the two cultural communication patterns. This study attempts to further explore the smiling differences, as well as possible similarities, existing between male and female University students in the United States and China. The study will further examine the potential cultural influences on diverse gender responses for smiling within nine different social situations identified in the analysis. Few studies have explored this important cross-cultural, nonverbal communication topic. Based upon the different genders’ smiling behaviors, the findings should improve our intercultural understanding between these two countries.
|Keywords:||Smiling Behaviors, Gender Diversity, Nonverbal Communication, Collectivism, Individualism, Power Distance, Ingroup-Outgroup|
Associate Professor of Mass Communication, College of Communication, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China
Assistant Professor, Sociology, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA
Professor of Speech Communication, Speech Communication, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA
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