Gender Differences Concerning Status and Situational Influences on the Emotional and Social Bases of Smiling

By Xiaohui Pan, Melissa Barfield-Works and William A. Haskins.

Published by The Diversity Collection

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Smiling can reflect both ones inner emotional states as well as ones culturally appropriate and competent behavior within social situations. Previous studies have indicated cultural differences in smiling behavior between Chinese and American college students. However, with the spread of globalization and the influence of Asian pacific cultures, many of these cultural differences have disappeared and reveal fewer gaps between the two cultural communication patterns. This study attempts to further explore the smiling differences, as well as possible similarities, existing between male and female University students in the United States and China. The study will further examine the potential cultural influences on diverse gender responses for smiling within nine different social situations identified in the analysis. Few studies have explored this important cross-cultural, nonverbal communication topic. Based upon the different genders’ smiling behaviors, the findings should improve our intercultural understanding between these two countries.

Keywords: Smiling Behaviors, Gender Diversity, Nonverbal Communication, Collectivism, Individualism, Power Distance, Ingroup-Outgroup

International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp.15-28. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.561MB).

Dr. Xiaohui Pan

Associate Professor of Mass Communication, College of Communication, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China

I am an Associate Professor in the College of Mass Communication at Shenzhen University in China. I have a broad range of interest in the field of communication, ranging from mass communication to intercultural communication. My research interests includes the writing of a book on the topic of cross-cultural research methodology.

Dr. Melissa Barfield-Works

Assistant Professor, Sociology, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA

I am a rural sociologist who studies issues of place, poverty, and welfare policy. I have been teaching at McKendree University for two years where I teach classes in the social work track as well as research methods and analysis. I received my doctorate from Mississippi State University in 2002.

Dr. William A. Haskins

Professor of Speech Communication, Speech Communication, McKendree University, Lebanon, Illinois, USA

I am a professor of speech communication at McKendree University. I have published and presented fifty articles, a book, and professional presentations. My research interests include the areas of freedom of speech, intercultural communication, and conflict resolution styles. I enjoy reading, traveling, meeting people, good conversations, and playing tennis.


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