Hate Crime Based on Ethnicity and Religion: A Description of the Phenomenon in the United States Since 2000

By Mitchell Sherr and Max Montesino.

Published by The Diversity Collection

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Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Since its foundation as a nation, the United States has been one of the most immigrant-friendly democracies in the world. People from varied heritage and religions have harmoniously worked and lived together in the country; however, as it occurs in any multicultural society, during the last two centuries, different groups have been singled out and discriminated against. The purpose of this article is to describe the recent rise in hate crime against Muslims, Arabs, South Asians and Latinos in the U.S.A. from the beginning of the 21st century. This phenomenon, throughout history, has affected Jews, Catholics, Irish, Italians, Chinese, Japanese, and other immigrant communities in the country. A non-exhaustive literature review revealed that acts of hate crime have dramatically risen; first against Muslims following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (referred to as 9/11 throughout this article) and second against Latinos after 2003, following the heated discussions about immigration issues still going on at federal and state levels. For instance, recent studies show that six months after the 9/11 attacks, hate crime related incidents against Arab Americans increased 1700 times. By the same token, the FBI reports that anti-Latino hate crimes rose by almost 35 percent between 2003 and 2006. Furthermore, the number of hate groups in the U.S. has grown 54% since the year 2000. This trend represents a critical challenge to the notion of the U.S. as a “melting pot” based on tolerance for all and acceptance of minorities with equal rights under the law. An account of documented instances of hate crimes is presented in this article, along with a description of the phenomenon in the American society.

Keywords: Hate Crime, Ethnicity, United States

International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp.23-38. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 1.247MB).

Dr. Mitchell Sherr

Associate Professor, Division of Organizational Leadership and Supervision, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA

Mitchell A. Sherr is an Associate Professor at Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne and a practicing attorney and mediator. He has a J.D. degree from the University of Houston and a M.L.I.R. from Michigan State University. His interests are: Labor law and human relations, which includes discrimination issues, Fair Labor Standards Act, the National Labor Relations Act, and Social Security and Medicaid. Dr. Sherr has published in the Southern Law Journal, Annual Advances in Business Cases, Personnel Administration, The Ohio CPA Journal, and numerous book reviews published in the Journal Asia-Pacific Business. Mitchell A. Sherr has presented internationally in Australia, U.K. and Canada.

Dr. Max Montesino

Associate Professor, Division of Organizational Leadership and Supervision, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA

Dr. Max U. Montesino is an Associate Professor with the Division of Organizational Leadership and Supervision at Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne. He teaches undergraduate and graduate classes in the areas of human resource development, cross-cultural organizational behavior, and applied leadership. Max graduated from Western Michigan University with an Ed.D. concentration in human resource development in 1995, and a master of development administration (MDA) in 1991. He worked for several years as a management development consultant in Latin America. He conducts research in the area of cross-cultural organizational behavior, transfer of training and training evaluation. Max’s service endeavors range from local government and workforce development, to advocacy for immigrant communities in the United States. Dr. Montesino has published in several research outlets, such as Human Resource Development Quarterly (HRDQ), Human Resource Development International (HRDI), and the Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies (JLOS). He participates in many community organizations and initiatives in northeast Indiana.

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