Perceptions of the Impact of Positive Action in EU and non-EU Countries
Around the world, inequalities exist around boundaries of race, social class, gender, disability, religious beliefs and sexual orientation, often resulting from past and current discriminatory practices. Governments have taken certain measures, including enacting policies such as positive action, to remedy such discrimination. This paper provides a comparative analysis of perceptions of the impact of positive action in seven EU and three non-EU countries. The study adopted participatory methods including consensus workshops, interviews and policy analysis to obtain data from designers of positive action. Findings are discussed, conclusions drawn and wide-ranging recommendations are made at the EC, individual countries and organisational levels.
||Affirmative Action, Consensus Workshop, Equality Grounds, Disability, Diversity, Equal Opportunities, Gender, Positive Action, Race
International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp.111-124.
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Professor and Director, Centre for Inclusion and Diversity, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
Uduak Archibong is Professor of Diversity and Director of
the Centre for Inclusion and Diversity at the University of
Bradford, UK and a Visiting Professor at the University of
Kwa Zulu Natal, South Africa.
University of Bradford, UK
Jite Eferakorho was formerly a Post-doctoral Research
Officer at the Centre for Inclusion and Diversity at the
University of Bradford, UK.
Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Inclusion and Diversity, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
Aliya Darr is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for
Inclusion and Diversity at the University of Bradford, UK.
Senior Lecturer, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
Andy Scally is a Medical Statistician at the University of
Bradford and has broad experience in quantitative methods
applied to biomedical, health and social science research.
Professor, Department of Health Sciecnes, University of York, York, UK
Professor Karl Atkin is Professor of Ethnicity and Health
at the University of York, UK.
Professor and Head of Equality and Diversity, Equality and Diversity, NHS Employers, UK
Carol Baxter is a Professor and Head of Equality and
Diversity at NHS Employers, UK
Professor, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK
Mark Johnson is Professor of Diversity in Health and Social
Care and the Director of Mary Seacole Research Centre at De
Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
Mark Bell is a Professor at the Centre for European Law and
Integration, University of Leicester, UK.
Professor, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
Lisa Waddington holds the European Disability Forum Chair
in European Disability Law at Maastricht University, the
Anti-Discrimination and Equal Treatment Expert, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (BIM), Austria
Katrin Wladasch is researcher in the fields of anti-
discrimination and diversity at the L. Boltzmann Institute
of Human Rights, Vienna and lecturer at the University of
Programmes Coordinator, European Roma Rights Centre, Budapest, Hungary
Tara Bedard is Programmes Coordinator at the European Roman
Rights Centre, Hungary.
Professor, School of Nursing, University of the Western Cape, South Africa
Oluyinka Adejumo is a Professor and Head of the Centre for
Teaching and Learning Scholarship (CENTALS) at the School
of Nursing, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town,
Professor, Department of Community Public Health Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
Phyllis Sharps is Professor and Chair in the Department of
Community Public Health Nursing, Johns Hopkins University,
Associate Professor, Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, Canada
Pat Bradshaw is an Associate Professor in Organizational
Behaviour and Area Coordinator for Organisational Behaviour
and Industrial Relations, Schulich School of Business, York
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